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Bukit Barisan Selatan was established as a TEAM site in 2009. TEAM monitoring activities cover an area of approximately 200 km² and are managed by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in collaboration with the Directorate of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation (PHKA), Department of Forestry, Republic of Indonesia. TEAM monitoring is coordinated from Way Canguk Conservation Research and Training Center of WCS/PHKA located on the southern part of the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The Way Canguk research station was built in 1997 and the area was established as a scientific research site for forest and wildlife ecology of Sumatra’s lowland dipterocarp forest, and as a training site for young Indonesian conservationists.
The South Barisan Range Ecosystem is centered on the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BBSNP) on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. BBSNP is the third largest protected area (3,560 km²) on Sumatra and extends 150 km along the Barisan Mountain Range (4°31’ – 5°57’ S and 103°34’ – 104°43’ E) spanning two provinces in Sumatra, Lampung and Bengkulu. The park was established in 1982 although it has been gazetted as a game reserve since 1932. BBSNP contains more lowland forest than any other protected area in Sumatra. Topography of the park ranges from coastal plains and lowland rainforest in the southern peninsula, to mountains in the middle to northern part of the park. It streches along the Barisan Mountain range with an elevation range from about 0 – 1800 m above sea level. The long, narrow strip of BBSNP is surrounded by agriculture (mostly coffee and black pepper) that creates management challenges for the park.
The park also provides an enormous range of economic and ecological benefits. It maintains genetic diversity, maintains water quality for surrounding rivers and lakes that are used by people in surrounding towns, and serves as the primary watershed for Southwest Sumatra. The park provides various additional ecosystem services to people living in the surrounding areas such as fish stocks and non-timber forest products.
BBSNP contains a high diversity of wildlife; from large mammals such as Sumatran elephants, Sumatran tiger, Sumatran rhino, six primate species (siamang, agile gibbon, mitred leaf monkey, long-tailed macaque, silvered langur, and pig-tailed macaque), and a diverse bird community including six species of hornbills. Seventy seven of these species are listed in CITES Appendix I and II with Endangered to Critical IUCN status: Mammals such as Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatranus), Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatranus), and Sumatran rabbit (Nesolagus netscheri) (11 species Appendix I, 22 species Appendix II), Birds (6 species Appendix I, 38 species appendix II). Tiger and elephants are found at higher densities in the southern part of the park.
Bukit Barisan Selatan is located in Lampung province one of the most densely populated in Sumatra (7.3 million people). Local people and wildlife are effectively competing for the same resources. With 1,000 km of border that is dominated by human settlements, anthropogenic disturbance is the greatest threat to the integrity of BBSNP. Deforestation is considered the major threat which comes from agriculture encroachment and illegal logging. Other threats to the park are hunting and poaching.
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is located in the southern most province in Sumatra (Lampung). The total travel time from Jakarta to Way Canguk Research Station is 6.5 to 12.5 hours, by plane or car, respectively: 45 minutes by plane or seven hours by car from Jakarta to Tanjung Karang; two hours by car from Tanjung Karang to the National Park office in Kota Agung; two hours by car from Kota Agung to Sumberejo, the closest village to Way Canguk Research Station; and finally, a 1.5 hour walk through forest along a small trail to reach the station.
Wildlife Conservation Society-Indonesia Program: http://programs.wcs.org/indonesia